Ingredients we use

L-Lactic acid also promotes biosynthesis of ceramides, encouraging damaged skin to repair itself.¹² When applied topically L-lactic acid is believed to be absorbed by cells within the deeper layers of the skin (keratinocytes) before being metabolised as a precursor for ceramide synthesis. ¹²

As eczema sufferers are deficient in the ceramides that make up the majority of the lipid layer of the stratum corneum, the addition of ceramides is essential to repair this barrier layer. The most deficient ceramide is ceramide 1 (EOP),⁹ ¹⁰ with loss of ceramide 3 (NP) contributing predominantly to transepidermal water loss.⁹ ¹⁰ QV Intensive with ceramides contains both EOP and NP, providing topical relief to the damaged barrier layer.

Commonly known as Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin. The safety of Vitamin E is well established historically and practically for both oral and topical use. Vitamin E is essential for the stabilization of biological membranes, particularly those containing large amounts of fatty acids. The oxidation of unsaturated fats produces lipid peroxides that interfere with the structure and function of biological membranes. Vitamin E is recognised as an antioxidant that can prevent the formation of lipid peroxides. Apart from the benefits to the skin, Tocopherol is also used to prevent oxidisation of a formulation, thus allowing the product to be effective for longer.

Benefits

Helps repair, protect and improve skin.

Vitamin E has been found to assist resolution of fibrositic lesions,¹ protect from UV-induced erythema² ³ and roughness,⁴ improve the appearance of age spots, increase elasticity and skin barrier function,⁵ and smooth fine lines and wrinkles.⁶

Anti-Pruritic

Topical Vitamin E has also been found to reduce irritation related itch.⁴

Antioxidant

Vitamin E has been shown to be beneficial in preventing UV-induced free radical formation, protecting endogenous epidermal antioxidants, preventing lipid peroxidation, and preventing UV induced local immunosuppression.⁷ ⁸ In addition, studies have shown that Vitamin E can reduce UVB induced erythema,⁸ edema,⁹ wrinkling¹⁰ ¹¹ and DNA damage.¹²

References
  1. Furuse K. Vitamin E: Biological and clinical aspects of topical treatment. Cosmetics and Toiletries 1987;102:99-116.
  2. Potapenko AY, Abieva GA, Pliquett F. Inhibition of erythema of the skin photosensitizes with 8-methoxypsoralene by α-tocopherol. Bull Exp Biol Med 1980;89:611-615
  3. Dreher F, Denig N, Gabard B, Schwindt DA, Maibach HI. Effect of topical antioxidants on UV-induced erythema formation when administered after exposure. Dermatology 1999;198:52-55.
  4. Möller H, Ansmann A, Wallat S. The effects of Vitamin E on the skin in topical applications. Lecture presented at the DGF Vitamin E symposium in Bochum, March 4,1989.
  5. Idson B. Vitamins in emolliency and moisturizing preparations Cosmetics and Toiletries 1976;93(8):77-79.
  6. Mayer P. The effects of vitamin E on the skin. Cosmetics and Toiletries 1993;108:99-109.
  7. Sorg O, Tran C, Saurat JH. Cutaneous vitamins A and E in the context of ultraviolet-or chemically-induced oxidative stress. Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology 2001;14:363-372.
  8. Yuen KS, Halliday GM. Tocopherol, an inhibitor of epidermal lipid peroxidation, prevents ultraviolet radiation from suppressing the skin immune system. Photochemistry and Photobiology 1997;65(3):587-592.
  9. Moller H, Potokar M, Wallat S. Vitamin E als kosmetischer Wirkstoff Parfum Kosmet 1987;68:688-694.
  10. Bissett DL, Chatterjee R Hannon DP. Protective effect of a topically applied anti-oxidant plus an anti-inflammatory agent against ultraviolet radiation-induced chronic skin damage in the hairless mouse. Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists 1992;43:85-92.
  11. Bissett DL, Hillebrand GG, Hannon DP. The hairless mouse as a model of skin photoaging: its use to evaluate photoprotective materials. Photodermatology 1989;6:228-233.
  12. McVean M, Liebler DC. Inhibition of UVB induced DNA photodamage in mouse epidermis by topically applied α-tocopherol. Carcinogenisis 1997;18(8):1617-1622.

Also known as Pro Vitamin B5, is a precursor of the Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5), a cofactor in lipid biosyntheisis. It promotes lipid synthesis to improve the barrier function of the skin.¹ Panthenol is water soluble and easily penetrates the stratum corneum.¹ It is used as a humectant, improving stratum corneum hydration, reducing transepidermal water loss and maintaining skin softness and elasticity,¹ and has anti-itch benefits.³ It also imparts a light smooth and non greasy feel to products. Panthenol is well tolerated when applied topically with minimal risk of skin irritancy or sensitisation.² When used in hair care, Panthenol converts to Pantothenic acid,¹ which then penetrates the hair shaft and conditions the hair,² ³leaving it feeling soft and manageable.

Benefits

Penetrating

When Panthenol is applied to our skin, it results in a conversion to Pantothenic Acid. This acid penetrates into the epidermis, because it is readily absorbed by the skin.¹

Protecting

Penetrates the stratum corneum to promote lipid synthesis and improves the barrier function of the skin.²Pantothenic acid in the stable alcohol form of Dexpanthenol has been shown to hasten wound healing, improve epithelialisation and induce the proliferation of fibroblasts.² Panthenol has proven anti-inflammatory effects,² relieving systemic itching, whilst also helping to soothe dry and irritated skin.

Hydrating

Pantothenic acid works as a humectant, by attracting the moisture via absorption and retaining that moisture deep within the skin.²

References

  1. Choi CM, Berson MD. Cosmeceuticals. Semin Cutan Med Surg 2006; 25:163-168.
  2. Ebner F, Heller A, Rippke F, Tausch I. Topical use of dexpanthenol in skin disorders. Am J Clin Dermatol 2002; 3(6): 427-433.37
  3. Hoshowski MA. Conditioning of Hair. In: Johnson DH, editor. Hair and Haircare. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1997. p65-104

Paraffin Soft White or Petroleum jelly or Petrolatum has a unique action among moisturisers. It has long been recognised as a highly effective emollient that promotes rehydration of the skin both long term and short term. It is a powerful moisturiser of the stratum corneum because of its ability to penetrate the uppermost stratum corneum layers, migrating into the intercellular lipid layers. Paraffin soft white moisturises via occlusion of the stratum corneum, with the application of even a small amount producing noticeable improvement in dry skin.

Benefits

Contributes to skin barrier properties

It penetrates the uppermost stratum corneum layers, passing into the intercellular phase. Rather than integrating with the natural intercellular layer, it is distributed throughout the stratum corneum as a separate phase, thus contributing to the skin’s natural barrier properties.

Reduces transepidermal water loss

The application of petroleum jelly to the skin in vivo can immediately reduce transepidermal water loss by 40-50%.

Low irrtancy rating

Widely recognised as being innocuous and non-allergenic.⁵Only rarely are sensitisation reactions reported⁶ and petrolatum presents few, if any, safety or toxicological problems.

References

  1. Kligman AM. Regression method for assessing the efficacy of moisturizers. Cosmetics and Toiletries. 1978: 93(4); 27-35.
  2. Idson B: Dry Skin – Moisturising and Emolliency. Cosmetics and Toiletries. 107(7):69-78, 1992
  3. Lazer AP and Lazer P: Dermatol Clin 9(1):45, 1991
  4. Harry’s Cosmetology 8th edition. Ed. Reiger MM. Pub. Chemical Publishing Co, New York. 2000 p326,327
  5. Braun-Falco, Plewig G, Wolff HH and Winkelmann RK: Dermatology. Published by Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 1991, p1146
  6. Fisher, A.A., ‘Contact Dermatitis’ Third Edition p 148,149 (Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1986)
  7. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. A joint publication of the American Pharmaceutical Association and the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. Pub. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 1986 p194-195

Paraffinum Liquidum also known as liquid paraffin, is used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. In topical preparations, Paraffinum liquidum is used as an emollient, which leaves the skin feeling soft and supple. Paraffinum liquidum is adsorbed onto the skin, and provides an emollient film that reduces transepidermal water loss from the stratum corneum to the environment. Penetration into the skin is considered to be negligible following topical application. Paraffinum liquidum is non-toxic, non-irritating, inert and is considered innocuous, with a long history of safe use by humans in topically applied products.

Benefits

Safe for prolonged use

Critical analysis of studies into the toxicity of mineral oils such as Paraffinum liquidum has shown that it is extremely safe for prolonged use.

Rarely causes allergic reactions

Allergic reactions to Paraffinum liquidum are infrequent considering its widespread use in topical products.

Non-comedogenic

Highly refined and purified mineral oils, such as Paraffinum liquidum found in cosmetic and skincare products are non-comedogenic (does not clog pores).

Highly efficacious moisturising ingredient

Due to its good emollient action.

References

  1. Sheng JJ. Mineral Oil, Light. In: Rowe RC, Sheskey PJ, Quinn ME, editors. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. London 6th ed: Pharmaceutical Press; 2009. p.445-448.
  2. Taylor EA. Oil Adsorption: A method for determining the affinity for skin to adsorb oil from the queous disper-sions of water-dispersible oil preparations. J. Invest Dermatol 1961; 37: 69-72.
  3. Taylor EA. Cutaneous adsorption of bath oils. Arch. Dermatol 1963; 87: 369-371.
  4. Blank IH. Emollients. In: de Navarre MG, editor. The Chemistry and Manufacture of Cosmetics. Florida: The Continental Press. 1975: p 15 -24.
  5. Nash JF, Gettings SD, Diembeck W, Chudowski M, Kraus AL. A toxicological review of topical exposure to white mineral oils. Food Chem Toxicol 1996; 34(2): 213-225.
  6. Hunting ALL. Encyclopedia of Conditioning Rinse Ingredients. London: Micelle Press; 1987.p.280-281.
  7. Martindale.The Complete Drug Reference Vol 1 35th Ed: Sweetman SC, editor. London: The Pharmaceutical Press; 2007.
  8. Lanzet M. Comedogenic effects of cosmetic raw materials. Cosmet Toiletries. 1986; 101: 63-72.

Glycerin is a well-known humectant and skin conditioning agent which plays a role in stratum corneum hydration, skin elasticity, cell proliferation and lipid synthesis. Glycerin and water in the skin are transported by aquaporin3 (AQP3) and studies have shown that low levels of AQP3 can impair skin hydration, elasticity and barrier recovery. Bathing can remove glycerin from the skin. Washing daily with a product rich in glycerin helps to restore what may be lost and help maintain skin hydration levels.

Benefits

Effective skin moisturiser and conditioner

When used at levels above 3%; the higher the level, the better the effects.² (For leave-on moisturisers, after 10%, the base formulation composition is no longer a factor in the benefits delivered).

Protection against irritation

10% glycerine in a topical emulsion can help prevent the irritation and dehydration effects of washing the skin, including when sodium lauryl sulphate is used as the detergent.

Retains moisture in the skin

At high humidity, glycerine acts as a humectant, while at low humidity it acts as a skin moisturiser and conditioner by inhibiting lipid phase transition.

Promotes the recovery of the skin barrier function

Concentrations of glycerin between 3% and 10% theoretically able to increase the water-holding capacity of the skin through its humectant action and subsequently promote the recovery of the skin barrier function.

References

  1. Heinicke IR, Greive KA and Oppenheim VMJ, Topical Therapy for Severely Dry Skin, [Poster] 42nd ASM ACD, May 17-20, 2009
  2. Bissett DL, McBride JF. Skin Conditioning with Glycerol.J Soc Cosmet Chem. 1984;. 35:345-350.
  3. Brewster B. Aquaporins: Stimulating AQP3. Cosmet Toiletries 2008; 123(6): 20-26
  4. Hara M, Ma T, Verkman AS. Selectively reduced glycerol in the skin of Aquaporin3-deficient mice may account for other impaired skin hydration, elasticity and barrier recovery. J Biol Chem 2002; 277(48): 46616-46621.

Nicotinamide or niacinamide, is the physiologically active form of niacin or Vitamin B3.¹ In the body, nicotinamide is a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). ¹ These coenzymes are involved in biological oxidation reactions in the cells of the body and play a critical role in cellular energy production as well as in DNA synthesis and repair. ¹ Severe deficiencies in nicotinamide lead to pellagra, with symptoms including dermatitis, diarrhoea and dementia.

Benefits

Maintains normal skin barrier function and reduces sensitive skin symptoms

Topical application of 2% nicotinamide has shown to improve the barrier properties of the skin and reduce skin sensitivity.

Effective moisturiser for dry skin

The topical application of 2% nicotinamide is shown to significantly reduce transepidermal water loss.

An anti-inflammatory with benefits for acne prone skin

The application of 4% nicotinamide topically has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects on acne vulgaris.

Improves the appearance of skin tone and texture.

Topical application of 5% nicotinamide improves the appearance of aged and photo-damaged skin and a reduction in hyperpigmentation.

Inhibits actinic keratosis

Topical nicotinamide at 1% also reduces the number of precancerous actinic keratosis.

Inhibits photo-immunosuppression

Nicotinamide at 0.2% and 5% upregulated the gene corresponding to increased SDH activity in the presence of UV radiation to maintain cellular energy levels

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